Claisen Condensation and Dieckmann Condensation: Decarboxylation, Choice of Base

One way to create a new carbon chain is through synthetic reactions using enolates. One of the organic chemical syntheses with enolates is Claisen condensation. In Claisen condensation, molecules with esters react with enolates. As a result, new carbonyl compounds can be obtained. When Claisen condensation occurs intramolecularly, it is called Dieckmann condensation (intramolecular Claisen […]

Carbonyl Reduction: Hydride Reduction with NaBH4 and LiAlH4

It is important in organic chemistry to change the form of the functional group to get the substituent you want. When you perform a synthetic reaction, you have to synthesize a compound that has the functional group you want. One of those synthetic reactions is carbonyl reduction. Among the reduction reactions, the reduction of carbonyl […]

HSAB Theory: Meaning the Hard/Soft of Acids and Bases

In organic chemistry, synthetic reactions are often carried out by acids and bases. The reaction of a Lewis acid and a Lewis base creates new bonds. So when a compound reacts chemically, what kind of atoms bond with each other? In this regard, the HSAB theory (or HSAB principle) helps us to predict where compounds […]

Nucleophilic Acyl Substitution with Carboxylic Acid Derivatives

Compounds with a C=O structure are carbonyl compounds, and there are many types of carbonyl compounds. Among these carbonyl compounds, carbonyl compounds that can be synthesized from carboxylic acids are called carboxylic acid derivatives. There are different types of carboxylic acid derivatives, such as acyl chloride, acid anhydride, esters, and amides. Each has different reactivity […]